Organizations Using the Internet
Modified 24 April 2009
Their internetworking people can't decide if they're really in
ru (Russia) or the
su (Soviet Union) domain,
although the USSR hasn't existed since what, 1992?
I've been to Russia a number of times,
and have seen local area networks there with domain names drawn from
a random mix of
I don't know if the indecision says more about the degree of chaos
or the political views of the system administrators.
Russian Intelligence and Security Organizations
- Federal'naya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti — Federal Department of Security. The FSB, new name for Komityet Gosudarstvyenoy Bezopasnosti, the Committee for State Security, or the KGB. http://www.fsb.ru Rapidly absorbing the Border Guards and everything else they can. June 1998 legislation requires Russian ISP's to provide FSB with full access to their servers, and to provide and maintain monitoring hardware for digital eavesdropping. [``Segodnya'' and RFE/RL Newsline, 22 July 1999]
- Institute Kryptographiy, Cvyazi, i Informatiki — Institute of Cryptography, Signals, and Informatics. Run by the ``Academy of the FSB,'' the KGB training academy. I'm not sure how this relates to FAPSI, Fyedyeral'noye Agyenstvo Pravitelstvyennoi Svyazi i Informatsii, or Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information, which was formed out of the 8th Chief Directorate and the 16th Directorate of the KGB in 1992.
- Sluzhba Vneshni Razvedkiy Rossii (SVR) — Russian Agency of Foreign Intelligence http://www.svr.gov.ru
- Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh dyel Rossiskoy Federatsiy (MVD) — Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation — http://www.mvd.ru/
- Russian Government
- Ministry of Defense — note that one or more of these may redirect you to one of the others
- Russian Navy —
- Voeynniy Institut Pravitel'stvennoy Svyazi (Military Institute of Government Communication) — http://www-vips.icn.gov.ru/
Russian Defense Industry
- http://www.iemz.ru/ — Izhevskiy Elektromekhanicheskiy Zavod ``Kupol'' — ``a leading enterprise in manufacture of air defense missile systems''
- http://www.topol.ru/ — Votkinsky Zavod — produces SS-20, SS-23, and SS-25 ballistic missiles. Wanna buy a SCUD?
- http://www.guns.ru/pvo/ — Vyestnik PVO — produces major arms, including surface-to-air missiles.
- http://www.izhmash.ru/ — Izhmash — makes the AK-74 and other infantry rifles, sniper rifles, submachine guns, aircraft cannons for the MiG-29 and Su-27, and artillery systems.
- http://www.mehzavod.ru/ — Izhevsky Mechanichesky Zavod — producer of small arms, Makarov, Izh-75, etc.
- http://www.vpk.ru/ — Russian Teleinformation Network of the Defense Industry Complex
- http://www.rbs.ru/vttv/ — Russian weapons and military technology exhibition
- http://www.milparade.ru/ — claims to be ``the only national publication of the military-industrial complex of Russia'' and is run ``by decision of the Russian Government.''
- http://www.vpk.ru:8082/index.htm — Another ``military-industrial complex'' site, claiming at least semi-official status. Also has links to the Ministry of Economics, Krasnaya Zvyesda (Red Star) magazine, etc.
- Also see the great directory at: http://weblist.ru/english/Government/Military/
- ``Alpha'' Spetznaz Special Anti-Terror Force — an Alpha veterans' group is at: http://www.alphagroup.ru/
- A movement to re-establish the Soviet Union (really!) — http://www.northstarcompass.org/
Russian political parties —
See the current list represented in the Duma at
Communist Party of the Russian Federation
- Official site, Kommunisticheskaya Partia Rossiskoy Federatsii (Communist Party of the Russian Federation — http://www.kprf.ru/
- Fraktsiya "Edinstvo" (Unity Faction) — http://duma.edin.ru/
- Narodniy Deputat (People's Deputy) — http://group.narod-party.ru/
- Otechestbo - Vsya Rossiya (Fatherland - All Russia) — http://www.ovr.ru/
- Regioniy Rossiy (Russian Regions) — http://www.duma.gov.ru/rusreg/
- Agropromishlennaya Deputatskaya Gruppa (Agro-Industrial Group) — http://www.duma.gov.ru/agro_grupp/
- Soyuz Pravikh Sil Union of Rightist Forces — http://www.sps.ru/sps/
- Yabloko (Apple) — http://www.yabloko.ru/Persons/faction.html
- Liberal'no-Demokraticheskoy Partiy Rossiy (Liberal-Democratic Party of Russia) — http://www.ldpr.ru/fraction.htm
- Communist Party of the Russian Federation
- Pravda — Russian for ``Truth'', with which that paper was traditionally uncontaminated. http://www.pravda.ru/
- Pamyat — That's Russian for ``memory'', but the group's main focus seems to be violent anti-semitism and xenophobia.
- Bellona — A Norwegian environmental group that Russia says is ``exposing state secrets'' such as Russia's nasty environmental disasters. The FSB has jailed Bellona people indefinitely for exposing Russia's reckless dumping of nuclear waste. http://www.bellona.no/e/index.htm
- Political Opposition Movements —
- Breakaway Republics — There are a number of semi-independent avtomniyeh respubliki which Moscow is willing to let go their own way and, to some extent, pretend to be independent countries. Some have even started printing their own money. Great references for these republics, their cultures, and their Internet presences are:
And now, the list of avtomniyeh respubliki i rayoni:
Adygeia Republic —
- The state university — http://www.adygnet.ru/
- Aga-Buriat Autonomous Area — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/aga/main.html
- Altai Republic — On the Russian side of the border right where Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Turkestan (eastern People's Republic of China) come together.
- Altai Territory — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/att/main.html
- Bashkortostan — just north of east-central Kazakhstan.
- Buryatia — Centered on Ulan-Ude, near Lake Baikal. The Ust-Orda Buryatian Autonomous Okrug government is considering restoration of the Buryatian-Mongolian Republic, which existed in 1937. [RFE-RL Newsline, 8 Sep 1998, Dec 1998, http://www.rferl.org/; ``Delovoi Vtornik'' 1 Dec 1998.]
Chechnya — they fought the Russian army to a
standstill in 1995 and controlled the region independently
of Moscow, until the Russians sent in military forces
in late 1999.
Russia seemed to consider it as an independent country
1995-1999, although few other countries did.
Overview from "New York Times" 25 Oct 2002 pg A8:
Year Political/Military events Terror events 1990 Chechen separatists hijack Russian Tu-154 1991 Local communist governor is ousted.
Soviet general Dzhokhar Dudayev declares Chechnya independent.
Russia rejects this claim, but lets Dudayev rule.
Two more planes hijacked 1994 Russian president Boris Yeltsin sends troops.
They meet strong resistance.
Soviet general Dzhokhar Dudayev declares Chechnya independent.
Russia rejects this claim, but lets Dudayev rule.
1995 Separatists abandon capital city Grozny.
Grozny is largely destroyed.
Over 100 die in hostage crisis in Budyonnovsk, Russia. 1996 Yeltsin admits Chechen campaign is a "mistake" but rules out withdrawl.
General Dudayev killed in rocket attack, replaced by Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev.
Yeltsin and Yandarbiyev agree on truce.
Chechen rebels seize Grozny.
Russian General Aleksandr Lebed signs a truce deferring sovereignty 5 years.
Alsan Maskhadov, former leader of rebel forces, becomes interim prime minister.
Dozens die in hostage crisis in Kizlyar, Russia. 1997 Last Russian troops leave.
Maskhadov elected president.
Peace accord is signed, but Russia says Chechnya must remain part of Russian Federation.
Two Russian journalists seized in Chechnya, first in long series of abductions for ransom. 1998 Chechen warlords demand Maskhadov quit, calling him "too conciliatory". Around this time, groups like Sakhina Security Services begin openly advertising on the Internet, seeking "fighters for Jihad in Chechnya". Schoolroom training in the UK, supposedly followed by firearms training in the western U.S., then shipment to Chechnya and/or Afghanistan. 1999 Maskhadov narrowly escapes assassination.
Russian army invades (again).
2000 Russians take Grozny (again).
Moscow announces end of military operations in Chechnya.
Attacks on Russian army increase
New Russian President Vladimir Putin announces Chechnya is under "direct presidential rule".
2002 Moscow no longer recognizes Maskhadov as Chechen president.
Two Russian military transport helicopters are downed by rebels. First kills two generals and 12 soldiers, second kills 121.
Group of 50 Chechen militants smuggles rifles and mines into Moscow. Seizes theatre with 850 hostages. 118 hostages are killed.
- Several mirrors of the same site:
Qoqaz — Jihad in Chechnya — this
appeared to be one organization, or at least
the web page designs were so similar
as to strongly suggest that, and they
all cross-linked to each other.
An extremely diverse set of languages
scattered across several domains.
"Qoqaz" is Arabic for "Caucasus".
Azzam Publications was run by Babar Ahmad,
who was arrested on terrorism charges
in London UK in August 2004
[Washington Post, 7 Aug 2004,
- Albanian — http://www.albislam.com/lajme/
- Arabic — http://www.qoqaz.com/
- Bosnian — http://www.cecenija.de
- Dutch — http://go.to/qoqaz
- English —
- French —
- German — http://www.qoqaz.de
- Indonesian — http://members.muslimsites.com/ipul/chechnya/chfront.htm
- Italian — http://qoqaz.bizland.com/
- Malay —
- Malay — http://abumuslim.tripod.com/index.html
- Russian — http://sr11.xoom.com/htk067/index.html
- Spanish — http://www.latinmuslims.com/chechnya/main.html
- Swedish —
- Turkish— http://www.tevhid.de/
- Ukrainian — http://www.ichkeriya.com
- Ayoh Jihad — Jihad in Chechnya — maybe affiliated with Qoqaz (above) http://qital.tripod.com/
- Free Chechnya and Radio Free Chechnya — http://www.chechnyafree.ru
- http://www.infocentre.ru — Rosinformcenter, or Russian Informational Center, set up by the Russian government and ``coaching Russian officials on the politically acceptable way to report the war.'' (New York Times, 28 Nov 1999, pg 10, a good article discussing both sides of information control in this conflict).
- Pro-Chechnya Sites
- Chukchi Autonomous Area — The very north-eastern tip of Siberia — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/chk/main.html
- Chuvashia — Central Russia, not too far from Moscow.
Dagestan — Sandwiched between Chechnya and the
Caspian Sea. Like Chechnya, Caucasian/Islamic, and
violently attempting to split off from Russia.
- Government — http://www.rd.dgu.ru/
- http://www.kavkaz.com/ seems to be connected, but it leads off to a Russian datacom company. Something odd with their DNS configuration....
- Donetsk Republic — Historically a short-lived Soviet Republic, formed by Bolsheviks on 12 Feb 1918 and not recognized by anyone, including the Russian RSFSR. Based around Kharkov, claiming territory in southern Ukraine. See the Wikipedia page for details. There has been some agitation for its re-establishment after the splitting of the Soviet Union.
- Evenk Autonomous Area — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/eve/main.html
- Ingush government — http://www.ingushetia.ru/
- Ingush language — http://ingush.berkeley.edu:7012/
- Jewish Autonomous Region — A Stalinist leftover, a remote far eastern ghetto along the Manchurian border for Russian Jews, who (to no one's surprise) did not emigrate there in droves.
Kabarda-Balkharia — a.k.a. Kabardino-Balkarian Republic,
yet another neighbor of Chechnya and Georgia.
- Official government site — http://www.nalnet.ru/
- Kalmykia — Just north of Chechnya and Dagestan, with a short coast on the Caspian Sea. Kirsan Ilumzhinov, the president, is subject of the most bizarre cult of personality in existance.
- Karachai-Cherkess Republic — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/kch/main.html
- Karelia — Along the Finnish border, fairly Finnish and Saami in culture and language —
- Khabarovsk — Much of the coast north of Vladivostok — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/xtt/main.html
- Khakasia — Just north of Altai Republic
- Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area —
- Khazaria — southern Russia. http://www.khazaria.com/
- Komi Republic — A big far-northern region north-east of Moscow. The capital is Syktyvkar, and it extends north and east from there.
- Komi-Permiak Autonomous Area — Much smaller than the Komi Republic — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/kmp/main.html
- Koriak Autonomous Area — The neck of Kamchatka —
- Krasnodar Territory — On the Black Sea and Sea of Azov http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/dtt/main.html
- Krasnoyarsk Territory — A large region extening north-south in west-central Siberia — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/ytt/main.html
- Mari El Republic — In the foothills of the Urals, settled by a Finno-Ugric people.
- Mordova — South of Moscow —
- Nenets Autonomous Region — Along the Arctic coast, and Novaya Zemlya —
- Primore Territory — Vladivostok and surroundings — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/ptt/main.html
Sakha Republic — Also known as Yakutia,
a vast region in far north-eastern Siberia,
rich in diamonds and other mineral resources.
- Sakhalin and Kurile Islands — Japan and Russia have been disagreeing over the Kuriles since 1945 — http://www.sakhalin.ru/
- Stavropol Territory — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/stt/main.html
- Taimyr Autonomous Area — A large region along the Arctic coast — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/tai/main.html
Tatarstan — East of Moscow, home of the Tatar hordes
feared ever since there was a Russia.
South-east of Moscow.
When Russia and Belarussia signed what appear to be preliminary
unification treaties in December, 1998, the president of
Tatarstan announced that Tatarstan wants equal standing
with other republics, including Russia, in any greater
Russian empire [see RFE/RL Newsline,
- Official government site —
Tyva (Tuva) —
- Official government site — http://gov.tuva.ru/
- Udmurtia — East of Moscow
- Ust-Orda Buriat Autonomous Area — A small area east of Lake Baikal — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/ust/main.html
- Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area — A large region around the Obskaya Guba, where the Ob River flows into the Arctic Ocean — http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pjrc/rus/yam/main.html
Regional governors — touting their own cause, or
being lampooned by the opposition.
See RFE/RL news, vol 2, no 27, 26 July 2000,
- Kemerovo governor Aman Tuleev http://www.tuleev.ru
- Samara governor Konstantin Titov http://www.titov.samara.ru
- Sverdlovsk governor Eduard Rossel http://www.rossel.ru
- Primorskii Krai governor Yevgenii Nazdratenko http://www.nazdratenko.ru — As per RFE/RL, ``Nazdratenko's site is perhaps the most fun with its unabashed self-promotion, its opening photo of Nazdratenko posed pompously over a city skyline, and frequent references to Nazdratenko's "manliness." The photo is at least realistic, since not a single light appears to be on in the city'' (referencing the continued electrical shortages in Nakhodka and Vladivostok).
- Tatarstan president Mintimer Shaimiev—
- Adygeia Republic —
Russian Mafia —
Having been to Russia a number of times,
I would say that it would be very difficult indeed to find any
business or government operation that wasn't in some way
influenced by organized crime.
Practially all businesses pay for a krisha, or ``roof,''
which is protection money.
Some real estate agencies finding apartments for western businessmen
would find a desired place, murder the occupants, and thus show amazing
success and speed at finding ``wonderful housing opportunities.''
I haven't come across anything explicitly advertising criminal services
yet, but I'll keep looking.
Meanwhile, I'll suspect everything commercial
- Lenin Mausoleum Home Page — Not particularly a threat to anyone, but too bizarre to pass up. http://koi.aha.ru/~mausoleu/. Apparently the author left his keyboard in Cyrillic mode when entering some of the HTML, so the links didn't work when I checked.
- Al-Qaeda, some Pakistani militant movements, and the general jihadists, all of whom have been involved, or tried to become involved, in Chechnya.
- The sections on Soviet lands where Russia wields influence:
- Aum Shinri Kyo, which has attempted to establish in Russia (and buy military hardware).
Travel ideas for visiting Russia
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