Map of Europe in 1360.

Cyberwar — Lebanon


2012 — See the Gauss malware deployed against Middle Eastern banking, primarily in Lebanon.

March 2015 — A spying attack was detected, primarily against Israel but also detected in Turkey and Lebanon and to lesser extents in the US, Canada, UK, Japan, Peru, and elsewhere. Checkpoint concluded that the attack, which they named Volatile Cedar, was by a nation-state group operating in Lebanon. The attack seemed to have been underway since 2012. It includes custom-written software to steal files, keystrokes, and screenshots, stealing sensitive information for political or intelligence purposes.

January 2018 — The Electronic Frontier Foundation and the mobile security company Lookout revealed that GDGS, the General Directorate of General Security, the internal intelligence agency in Lebanon, has been spying on thousands of people in 21 countries including the U.S., China, Russia, India, Germany, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and Lebanon. The targets include journalists, activists, military personnel, government officials, and employees of defense contractors and financial institutions. The malware exploited Android mobile devices and desktop machines running Windows, macOS, and Linux.