Map of Europe in 1360.

Cyberwar — Qatar


June 2017 The New York Times reported on events from the preceding month. News reports appeared on the official Qatari new agency's web site, designed to alienate the U.S. and Gulf Arab nations. A few days later, emails from the U.A.E.'s ambassador to the U.S. began to appear in Western news media and the Qatari news network Al Jazeera. Saudi Arabia and the U.A.E. led smaller Arab nations in cutting off diplomatic relations, travel, and trade with Qatar.

The U.S. F.B.I. and U.K law enforcement agreed that the official Qatari news agency was hacked. Qatari officials blamed the Saudis and Emiratis. The F.B.I. and some industry analysts said that it was probably done by Russian hackers for hire. Also see the report Bahamut, Pursuing a Cyber Espionage Actor in the Middle East.

The United Arab Emirates and Qatar leaked emails, issued propaganda, and otherwise used information to influence U.S. policy on Iran and the UAE and Saudi blockade of Qatar.
"How Two Persian Gulf Nations Turned The US Media Into Their Battleground"