Map of Europe in 1360.

Cyberwar — Turkey


July 2016 — The Peace at Home Council, a faction within the Turkish Armed Forces, attempted a coup d'état on 15 July 2016. Plotters used a WhatsApp group to communicate and tried to block access to sites including Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter. President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan used Internet social media tools to rally popular opposition to the coup. Mass arrests followed, and over 45,000 military officials, police officers, judges, governors, and civil servants were arrested or suspended. This included 2,700 judges, 15,000 teachers, and every university dean in the country. Also, the licenses of 21,000 private-sector teachers were cancelled. 626 educational institutions, most of them private, were shut down immediately. Another 1,043 private schools were closed a week later, along with 1,229 charities, 19 trade unions, 35 medical institutions, and 15 universities.

A week later, WikiLeaks published nearly 300,000 emails from Erdoğan's Justice and Development Party, and the government blocked access to the site.