A fishing boat is tied up at the pier on Ios.

Learning Greek

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Grammar Basics

This first section is the basic starting point — cases and articles.

Cases

Masc. = Masculine gender
Fem. = Feminine gender
Neu. = Neuter gender
Nom. = Nominative, or Subjective case
The dog drinks the water.
Ο σκύλος πίνει το νερό.
Obj. = Objective, or Accusative case
The dog drinks the water.
Ο σκύλος πίνει το νερό.
Gen. = Genitive, or Possessive case, or indirect object
I see the dog's water. Or, literally: I see the water of the dog.
Βλάπω το νερό του σκύλου.
Or, Athena gives water to the dog.
Η Αθηνά δίνει νερό στον σκύλο.
subj. acc. gen.
Or, all pronouns, She gives them to them.
Αυτή τους τα δίνει.
subj. acc. gen.

As for general patterns of noun gender:

Most masculine nouns end –ος, –ης, –ας, or –έας.

Most feminine nouns end –η, –α, or –ος.

Most neuter nouns end –ο or –ι.

Definite Article, "the"

Singular Plural
Masc. Fem. Neu. Masc. Fem. Neu.
Nom. ό ή τό οί οί τά
Obj. τό(ν) τή(ν) τό τούς τίς τά
Gen. τού τής τού τών τών τών

The (ν) only needs to be used when the following word begins with a vowel or with a few specific consonants:
τό σκύλο / τόν άντρα
To err on the side of caution and formality, you can always use it.

Proper names take the definite article: Ο Αλέξανδρος, Η Αθήνα

Indefinite Article, "a" or "one"

Masc. Fem. Neu.
Nom. ένας μία / μιά ένα
Obj. ένα(ν) μία(ν) / μιά(ν) ένα
Gen. ενός μιάς / μίας ενός