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Learning Greek

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Verbs

Verbs will be shown in tables like this, without the row and column labels:

Singular Plural
1st person I am We are
2nd person You are (informal) You are (formal)
3rd person He/she/it is They are

Be and Have

Be and have, είμαι and έχω, are irregular.

Present / Is Past / Was
είμαι είμαστε ήμουν(α) ήμασταν
είσαι είσαστε / είστε ήσουν(α) ήσασταν
είναι είναι ήταν(ε) ήταν(ε)
Present / Have Past / Had
έχω έχουμε είχα είχαμε
έχεις έχετε είχες είχατε
έχει έχουν(ε) είχε είχαν(ε)
Εγώ είμαι Εμείς είμαστε
Εσύ είσαι Εσείς είσαστε
Αυτός είναι
Αυτή
Αυτό
Αυτοί είναι
Αυτές
Αυτά
Εγώ έχω Εμείς έχουμε
Εσύ έχεις Εσείς έχετε
Αυτός έχει
Αυτή
Αυτό
Αυτοί έχουνε
Αυτές
Αυτά

Regular Verb Conjugation

A#lmost all modern Greek verbs belong to one of two regular conjugation patterns, depending on where the stress falls in the "dictionary form" of the first person singular.

First conjugation verbs' stress is not in the ending, as in γράφω or "I write", unstressed –ω

Second conjugation verbs' stress is in the ending, as in αγαπώ or "I love", or δροσίζω or "I refresh", stressed –ώ or –ίζω.

Active Voice

Present
1st Conj 2nd Conj A 2nd Conj B
'–ω '–ουμε –ώ –άμε –ώ –ούμε
'–εις '–ετε –άς –άτε –είς –είτε
'–ει '–ουν –άει –ούν –εί –ούν
Simple Past
'–α '–αμε '–α '–αμε '–α '–αμε
'–ες '–ατε '–ες '–ατε '–ες '–ατε
'–ε '–αν '–ε '–αν '–ε '–αν
Imperfective imperative
'–ε '–ετε '–α –άτε –είτε
Perfective imperative
'–ε '–(ε)τε '–ε '–τε '–ε '–τε

Passive Voice

Present
1st Conj 2nd Conj A 2nd Conj B
'–ομαι; –όμαστε –ιέμαι; –ιόμαστε –ούμαι; –ούμαστε
'–εσαι; '–εστε –ιέσαι; –ιέστε –είσαι; –είστε
'–εται; '–ονται; –ιέται; –ιούνται –είται; –ούνται
Simple Past
'–ηκα –ήκαμε '–ηκα –ήκαμε '–ηκα –ήκαμε
'–ηκες –ήκατε '–ηκες –ήκατε '–ηκες –ήκατε
'–ηκε –ήκαν '–ηκε –ήκαν '–ηκε –ήκαν
Imperfective imperative
'–ου –είτε '–ου –είτε '–ου –είτε

Future and Perfect Tenses

The future tense uses the particle θα followed by the relevant verb.

Εγώ γράφω. = I write.
Εγώ θα γράφω. = I shall write.

The perfect tenses use έχω / είχα or have / had along with the "non-finite" form of the verb, the third person singular form ending in –ει.

Present:
Εγώ γράφω = I write, or I am writing.

Past imperfect:
Εγώ έγραφα = I was writing, or I used to write.

Simple past:
Εγώ έγραψα = I wrote.

Perfect:
Εγώ έχω γράψει = I have written.

Pluperfect:
Εγώ είχα γράψει = I had written.

Future perfect:
Εγώ θα έχω γράψει = I shall have written.

Examples

πληρώνω = I pay, I am paying (active present)
πληρώνομαι = I am paid, I am being paid (passive present)
πλήρωσα = I paid (simple past)
πλήρωνα = I was paying, I used to pay (imperfective past)
πληρώθηκα = I was paid (passive simple past)
πληρωνόμουν = I was being paid (passive imperfective past)

Βλέπω = I see
Είδα = I saw
Κοιτάζω = I look at
Κοίταξα = I looked at
Προσέχω = I watch
Έβλεπα = I watched
Ακούω = I hear, I listen
Άκουσα = I heard
Άκουγα = I was hearing, I was listening
Λέω = I tell
Είπα = I told
Γράφω = I write
Έγραψα = I wrote
Αγοράζω = I buy
Αγόρασα = I bought
Δουλεύω = I work
Δούλεψα = I worked
Κάνω = I do
Έκανα = I did
Τελειώνω = I finish
Τελείωσα = I finished
Πάω = I go
Πήγα = I went
Έρχομαε = I come
Ήρθα = I came
Βοηθάω = I help
Βοήθησα = I helped
Αγγίζω = I touch
Άγγιξα = I touched
Χρησιμοποιώ = I use
Χρησιμοποίησα = I used
Μπορώ = I can
Μπορέσα = I could

Τπώω = I eat
Έφαγα = I ate
Πίνω = I drink
Ήπια = I drank
Παίρνω = I get
Πήρα = I got
Κάνω = I give
Έδωσα = I gave
Φέρνω = I bring
Έφερα = I brought
Βάζω = I am putting
Έβαλα = I did put
Ξέρω = I know
Ήξερα = I knew
Βρίσκω = I find
Βρήκα = I found
Αφήνω = I leave
Άφησα = I left
Τελειώνω = I finish
Τελείωσα = I finished
Κερδίζω = I win
Κέρδισα = I won
Μένω = I stay
Έμεινα = I stayed
Ανοίγω = I open
Άνοιξα = I opened
Κλείνω = I close
Έκλεισα = I closed