A fishing boat is tied up at the pier on Ios.

Learning Greek

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A Greek Study Guide

This section has pronouns like I, you, her, etc, determinatives like this, that, those, all, etc, and word order for a mix of nouns and pronouns like These women show it to her.

Personal Pronouns

The third person pronouns have "he", "she", and "it" forms.


Singular Plural
1st Pers. εγώ εμείς
2nd Pers. (ε)σύ (ε)σείς
3rd Pers. M: αυτός
F: αυτή
N: αυτό
M: αυτοί
F: αυτές
N: αυτά


Singular Plural
1st Pers. μέ μάς
2nd Pers. σέ σάς
3rd Pers. M: τόν
F: τή(ν)
N: τό
M: τούς
F: τίς, τές
N: τά


Singular Plural
1st Pers. μου μας
2nd Pers. σου σας
3rd Pers. M: του
F: της
N: του
M: τους
F: τους
N: τους

ο σκύλος = the dog
αυτός ο σκύλος = this dog
αυτά τα σκυλιά = these dogs

Use δικός / δική / δικό / for "my own" M / F / N singular, δικοί / δικές / δικά for M / F / N plural, and so on.

δικός μού = mine
δικός σού = yours
δικός τού / τής / τού = his / hers / its
δικός μάς = our
δικός σάς = yours
δικός τούς = theirs

Αυτό είναι το μικρό τους παιδί. = This is their small child. However,
Αυτό είναι το δικό τους μικρό παιδί. = This is their own small child.
Αυτά είναι τα δικά τους μικρά παιδιά. = These are their own small children.
Είμαι δικί τους. = I am theirs.
Είμαστε δικοί τους. = We are theirs.
Οι δικοί μας άντρες ... = Our own men ...
Τα δικά μας παιδά ... = Our own children ...
Η δική του σούπα ... = His own soup ...

The Objective and Genitive cases have long and short forms, long for emphasis.


Singular Plural
1st Pers. εγώ εμείς
2nd Pers. (ε)σύ (ε)σείς
3rd Pers. M: αυτός, εκείνος
F: αυτή, εκείνη
N: αυτό, εκείνο
M: αυτοί, εκείνοι
F: αυτές, εκείνες
N: αυτά, εκείνα


Singular Plural
1st Pers. εμένα μέ εμάς μάς
2nd Pers. εσένα σέ εσάς σάς
3rd Pers. M: αυτόν
F: αυτή(ν)
N: αυτό
M: αυτούς
F: αυτές
N: αυτά
τίς, τές


Singular Plural
1st Pers. εμένα μου εμάς μας
2nd Pers. εσένα σου εσάς σας
3rd Pers. M: αυτου
F: αυτης
N: αυτου
M: αυτων
F: αυτων
N: αυτων

Determinatives — This, That, These, Those, All

These decline like 3rd person pronouns, and can be used as pronouns as well as adjectives.

τούτος = very near the speaker, "this" or "these"
αυτός = non-specific distance
έκεινος = far from the speaker, "that" or "those"

όλος = all

Ο σκύλος τρώει = The dog eats.
Αυτός ο σκύλος τρώει = This dog eats.
Έκεινος ο σκύλος τρώει = That dog eats.

Αυτά τα σκύλιά τρώνε = These dogs eat.
Έκεινα τα σκύλιά τρώνε = Those dogs eat.
Όλα τα σκύλιά τρώνε = All the dogs eat.

Διαβάζουμε τα βιβλία = We read the books.
Διαβάζουμε αυτά τα βιβλία = We read these books.
Διαβάζουμε όλα τα βιβλία = We read all the books.

Αυτά τα παιδιά διαβάζουν έκεινα τα βιβλία. = These children read those books.

Direct and Indirect Objects, Forms and Order

Pronoun objects before the verb, noun objects after.

Αυτή η γυναίκα τους το δείχνει. This woman shows this to them.
Αυτή η γυναίκα αυτά τους τα δείχνει. This woman shows these to them.
Αυτή η γυναίκα του το δείχνει. This woman shows it to him.
Αυτοί οι άνδρες την της δείχνουν. These men show her to him.
Αυτές οι γυναίκες της το δείχνουν. These women show it to her.
Αυτή η γυναίκα του δείχνει αυτό το βιβλίο. This woman shows this book to him.
Αυτή η γυναίκα διαβάζει αυτό το βιβλίο σε αυτόν τον άντρα. This woman reads this book to that man.
Αυτές οι γυναίκες διαβάζουν αυτά τα βιβλία σε αυτούς τους άντρες. These women read these books to those men.