A fishing boat is tied up at the pier on Ios.

Learning Greek

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This section has pronouns like I, you, her, etc, determinatives like this, that, those, all, etc, and word order for a mix of nouns and pronouns like These women show it to her.

Personal Pronouns

The third person pronouns have "he", "she", and "it" forms.

The Objective and Genitive cases have strong and weak forms.

ο σκύλος = the dog
αυτός ο σκύλος = this dog
αυτά τα σκυλιά = these dogs


Singular Plural
1st Pers. εγώ εμείς
2nd Pers. (ε)σύ (ε)σείς
3rd Pers. M: αυτός
F: αυτή
N: αυτό
M: αυτοί
F: αυτές
N: αυτά

Objective — Strong

Singular Plural
1st Pers. εμένα εμάς
2nd Pers. εσένα εσάς
3rd Pers. M: αυτόν
F: αυτή(ν)
N: αυτό
M: αυτούς
F: αυτές
N: αυτά

Objective — Weak

Singular Plural
1st Pers. μέ μάς
2nd Pers. σέ σάς
3rd Pers. M: τόν
F: τή(ν)
N: τό
M: τούς
F: τίς, τές
N: τά

Genitive — Strong

Singular Plural
1st Pers. εμένα εμάς
2nd Pers. εσένα εσάς
3rd Pers. M: αυτού
F: αυτής
N: αυτού
M: αυτών
F: αυτών
N: αυτών

Genitive — Weak

Singular Plural
1st Pers. μου μας
2nd Pers. σου σας
3rd Pers. M: του
F: της
N: του
M: τους
F: τους
N: τους

Use δικός / δική / δικό for emphatic "my own" M / F / N singular, δικοί / δικές / δικά for M / F / N plural, and so on.

δικός μού mine δικός μάς our
δικός σού yours δικός σάς yours
δικός τού / τής / τού his/hers/its δικός τούς theirs

Αυτό είναι το μικρό τους παιδί. = This is their small child. However,
Αυτό είναι το δικό τους μικρό παιδί. = This is their own small child.
Αυτά είναι τα δικά τους μικρά παιδιά. = These are their own small children.
Είμαι δικί τους. = I am theirs.
Είμαστε δικοί τους. = We are theirs.
Οι δικοί μας άντρες ... = Our own men ...
Τα δικά μας παιδά ... = Our own children ...
Η δική του σούπα ... = His own soup ...

Το ύψος της μικρής μου κόρης είναι ένα μέτρο. = My little daughter's height is one meter.
The height of the little of-me daughter is one meter.

Determinatives — This, That, These, Those, All

These decline like 3rd person pronouns, and can be used as pronouns as well as adjectives.

τούτος = very near the speaker, "this" or "these"
αυτός = non-specific distance
έκεινος = far from the speaker, "that" or "those"

όλος = all

Ο σκύλος τρώει = The dog eats.
Αυτός ο σκύλος τρώει = This dog eats.
Έκεινος ο σκύλος τρώει = That dog eats.

Αυτά τα σκύλιά τρώνε = These dogs eat.
Έκεινα τα σκύλιά τρώνε = Those dogs eat.
Όλα τα σκύλιά τρώνε = All the dogs eat.

Διαβάζουμε τα βιβλία = We read the books.
Διαβάζουμε αυτά τα βιβλία = We read these books.
Διαβάζουμε όλα τα βιβλία = We read all the books.

Αυτά τα παιδιά διαβάζουν έκεινα τα βιβλία. = These children read those books.

Direct and Indirect Objects, Forms and Order

Pronoun objects before the verb, noun objects after.

Αυτή δε μου το επιτρέπει She doesn't allow me to do it.
Αυτή η γυναίκα τους το δείχνει. This woman shows this to them.
Αυτή η γυναίκα αυτά τους τα δείχνει. This woman shows these to them.
Αυτή η γυναίκα του το δείχνει. This woman shows it to him.
Αυτοί οι άνδρες την της δείχνουν. These men show her to him.
Αυτές οι γυναίκες της το δείχνουν. These women show it to her.
Αυτή η γυναίκα του δείχνει αυτό το βιβλίο. This woman shows this book to him.
Αυτή η γυναίκα διαβάζει αυτό το βιβλίο σε αυτόν τον άντρα. This woman reads this book to that man.
Αυτές οι γυναίκες διαβάζουν αυτά τα βιβλία σε αυτούς τους άντρες. These women read these books to those men.